Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Christian Broadcasting Network, "Americans Question Who Makes a Family,", Sep. 15, 2010

  2. Nate Silver, "Divorce Rates Higher in States with Gay Marriage Bans,", Jan. 12, 2010

  3. American Foundation for Equal Rights, "14 Supreme Court Cases: Marriage Is a Fundamental Right,", July 19, 2012

  4. Kathryn Perry, "The Cost of Gay Marriage - In Dollars and Cents," Christian Science Monitor, May 27, 2009

  5. American Psychological Association, "American Psychological Association Reiterates Support for Same-sex Marriage,", Aug. 11, 2010

  6. Freedom to Marry, "Marriage 101," (accessed Sep. 15, 2010)

  7. Tara Siegel Bernard and Ron Lieber, "The High Price of Being a Gay Couple,", Oct. 2, 2009

  8. American Anthropological Association, "Statement on Marriage and the Family,", Feb. 26, 2004

  9. Margaret Talbot, "Marriage as a Dynamic Institution,", Jan. 12, 2010

  10. "Do We Really Want to Redefine Marriage,", Aug. 11, 2010

  11. Glen Lavy, "Gay Marriage and the 'Slippery Slope,'", May 21, 2008

  12. Jerome Nathaniel, "5 U.S. Presidents Who Were Never Fathers," Policy.Mic website, June 17, 2013

  13. Sigal Samuel, "Jewish Responses to the Supreme Court's Same-Sex Marriage Rulings,", June 27, 2013

  14. M.V. Lee Badgett, PhD, When Gay People Get Married, 2009

  15. William N. Eskridge, Jr., Equality Practice: Civil Unions and the Future of Gay Rights, 2001

  16. Paula Ettelbrick, "Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?," OUT/LOOK National Gay and Lesbian Quarterly, Fall 1989

  17. Stanley Kurtz, "The End of Marriage in Scandinavia," Weekly Standard, Feb. 2, 2004

  18. John F. Harvey, "Regarding 'Gay Marriage,' ", July 7, 2009

  19. Dana Mack, "Now What for Marriage?,", Aug. 6, 2010

  20. Andrew Sullivan, Same-Sex Marriage Pro and Con, 2004

  21. David Carter, Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution, 2005

  22. George Chauncey, Why Marriage?: The History Shaping Today's Debate over Gay Equality, 2004

  23. Tricia Andryszewski, Same-Sex Marriage: Moral Wrong or Civil Right?, 2007

  24. Gregory M. Herek, PhD, "Facts About Homosexuality and Mental Health," (accessed Sep. 16, 2010)

  25. "North Carolina Passes Same-sex Marriage Ban, CNN Projects,”, May 8, 2012

  26. Alan Cooperman, Jonathan Finer, and Fred Barbash, "Gay Couples Wed in Mass.,"Washington Post, May 17, 2004

  27. "House Rejects Same-Sex Marriage Ban," Washington Post, Oct. 1, 2004

  28. Jennfer C. Pizer, "Lambda Legal Applauds Perry v. Schwarzenegger Ruling Striking Down Prop 8,", Aug. 4, 2010

  29. "Same Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships,", Apr. 2010

  30. Maura Dolan, "Federal Panel Puts Same-sex Marriage on Hold as Appeal of Prop. 8 Ruling Goes Forward,", Aug. 17, 2010

  31. "ABA Supports Legalizing Same-sex Marriage,", Aug. 11, 2010

  32. "American Psychological Association Reiterates Support for Same-sex Marriage,", Aug. 11, 2010

  33. "Church Statement on Proposition 8 Ruling,", Aug. 4, 2010

  34. Jeffrey Donovan, "Pope Condemns Gay Marriage, Warns on Biotechnology Before Trip to U.K.,", Sep. 13, 2010

  35. Nate Silver, "Opinion on Same-Sex Marriage Appears to Shift at Accelerated Pace,”, Aug. 12, 2010

  36. "Americans Split Evenly on Gay Marriage,", Aug. 11, 2010

  37. Amber G. Marcellino, et al., "Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate H.R. 2517" (29 KB),, Dec. 17, 2009

  38. J. Frank Vespa-Papaleo, et al., "The Legal, Medical, Economic & Social Consequences of New Jersey's Civil Union Law" (414 KB),, Dec. 10, 2008

  39. "Recognition of Same-Sex Couples Worldwide,", July 19, 2010

  40. Sahil Kapur, "Breaking: Appeals Court Scraps Gay Marriage Bans In Wisconsin, Indiana,", Sep. 4, 2014

  41. Vaughn Walker, JD, Opinion, Perry v. Schwarzenneger(343 KB),, Aug. 4, 2010

  42. D'Vera Cohn, "Love and Marriage,", Feb. 13, 2014

  43. Blake Ellis, "Gay Marriage Boosts NYC's Economy by $259 Million in First Year,", July 24, 2012

  44. Sabrina Tavernise, "Adoptions by Gay Couples Rise, Despite Barriers,", June 13, 2011

  45. Nanette Gartrell, MD, and Henny Bos, PhD, "US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological Adjustment of 17-Year-Old Adolescents," Pediatrics, July 7, 2010

  46. Rachel H. Farr, Stephen L. Forsell, and Charlotte J. Patterson, "Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?," Applied Developmental Science, July 19, 2010

  47. Anjan Choudhury, JD, "Application for Leave to File Brief Amici Curiae in Support of the Parties Challenging the Marriage Exclusion, and Brief Amici Curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in Support of the Parties Challenging the Marriage Exclusion" (277 KB),, Sep. 26, 2007

  48. Laura Langbein and Mark A. Yost, Jr., "Same-Sex Marriage and Negative Externalities," Social Science Quarterly, June 2009

  49. Bruce Peterson, JD, Majority Opinion, Baker v. Nelson,, Oct. 15, 1971

  50. W. Bradford Wilcox and Elizabeth Marquardt, "The State of Our Unions: Marriage in America 2009" (851 KB),, Dec. 2009

  51. Brady E. Hamilton, PhD, Joyce A. Martin, MPH, and Stephanie J. Ventura, MA, "Births: Preliminary Data for 2008" (312 KB), National Vital Statistics Reports, Apr. 6, 2010

  52. Bruce J. Ellis, "Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?,", Child Development, May 2003

  53. Napp Nazworth, "Kids Need Both Mom and Dad, Says Gay Man Opposed to Gay Marriage,", Jan. 28, 2013

  54. Joseph Card. Ratzinger, "Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions Between Homosexual Persons" (67 KB),, June 3, 2003

  55. Steven Levinson, JD, Majority Opinion, Baehr v. Lewin(152 KB),, May 5, 1993

  56. John Dooley,Baker v. Vermont(202 KB), Majority Opinion,, Dec. 20, 1999

  57. Jake Tapper, "President Obama Supports Legislation to Repeal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA),”, July 19, 2011

  58. David Nakamura, "Obama Backs Bill to Repeal Defense of Marriage Act,", July 19, 2011

  59. "A Contentious Debate: Same-Sex Marriage in the U.S.,", July 9, 2009

  60. US Supreme Court, Loving v. Virginia,, June 12, 1967

  61. "Remarks from NAACP Press Conference on Marriage Equality,", May 21, 2012

  62. Matthew D. Staver, "Homosexual Behavior Should Not Be Accorded Special Protection," National Law Journal Online, Oct. 2002

  63. "Denmark Approves Same-Sex Marriage and Church Weddings," BBC website, June 7, 2012

  64. Jackie Calmes and Peter Baker, "Obama Says Same-Sex Marriage Should Be Legal," New York Times, May 9, 2012

  65. Michael K. Lavers, "Uruguayan President Signs Marriage Bill into Law," Washington Blade, May 7, 2013

  66. "Marriage Legislation Becomes Law," Radio New Zealand website, Apr. 21, 2013

  67. "France Gay Marriage: Hollande Signs Bill into Law," BBC website, May 18, 2013

  68. Ezra Klein, "Sorry, Justice Scalia: There’s No Evidence That Gay Parents Aren’t Great Parents,", Mar. 27, 2013

  69. Shankar Vedantam, "Bans of Same-Sex Marriage Can Take a Psychological Toll,", May 20, 2013

  70. Ryan T. Anderson, "Marriage: What It Is, Why It Matters, and the Consequences of Redefining It,", Mar. 11, 2013

  71. Jillian Keenan, "Legalize Polygamy!,", Apr. 15, 2013

  72. Justin McCarthy, "Same-Sex Marriage Support Reaches New High at 55%,", May 21, 2014

  73. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Perry v. Brown(704 KB),, Feb. 7, 2012

  74. David G. Savage, "Gay Marriage Ruling: Supreme Court Finds DOMA Unconstitutional,", June 26, 2013

  75. US Supreme Court, United States v. Windsor(320 KB),, June 26, 2013

  76. Bill Mears, "Supreme Court Dismisses California's Proposition 8 Appeal,", June 26, 2013

  77. US Supreme Court, Hollingsworth v. Perry(169 KB),, June 26, 2013

  78. Chris Kirk, "What Countries Have Marriage Equality?,", July 17, 2013

  79. "Where State Laws Stand," (accessed July 17, 2013)

  80. Pew Research Center, "Gay Marriage around the World,", Feb. 5, 2014

  81. Lawrence Hurley, "Supreme Court Dodges Gay Marriage, Allowing Weddings in Five States,", Oct. 6, 2014

  82. Freedom to Marry, "States,", Nov. 12, 2014

  83. Freedom to Marry, "The Freedom to Marry Internationally,", Dec. 2014

  84. Against Equality, "Marriage," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  85. Illinois Family Institute, "The Effects of Same-sex Marriage on Education," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  86. Congressional Budget Office, "The Potential Budgetary Impact of Recognizing Same-Sex Marriages,", June 21, 2004

  87. Niraj Chokshi, "Gay Marriages Could Generate Hundreds of Millions in First Year of Legalization for 11 states, Studies Find,", Aug. 14, 2014

  88. US Supreme Court, Oral Arguments in Dennis Hollingsworth, et al., v. Kristen M. Perry, et al., Mar. 26, 2013

  89. Josh Barro, "What Is the Fiscal Impact of Gay Marriage?,", Mar. 26, 2013

  90. Ed. Basil Jones, "The American Ruling Cases as Determined by the Courts: Including the Fundamental Cases of England and Canada; Also All Reviewing and Illustrating Cases of Material Value from the Latest Official Reports, Completely Annotated,", 1917

  91. Ross Douthat, "Marriage, Procreation and Historical Amnesia," Apr. 2, 2013

  92. Lindsey Bever, "Children of Same-Sex Couples Are Happier and Healthier than Peers, Research Shows,", July 7, 2014

  93. Nolo, "Marriage Rights and Benefits," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  94. Lisa Arnold and Christina Campbell, "The High Price of Being Single in America,", Jan. 14, 2013

  95. Evan Wolfson, "Protections Denied to Same-Sex Couples and Their Kids," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  96. Jonathan Vespa, Jamie M. Lewis, and Rose M. Kreider, "America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2012,", Aug. 2013

  97. National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Infertility,", Feb. 13, 2014

  98. Meredith Clark, "Arizona Points to Procreation to Defend Gay Marriage Ban,", July 25, 2014

  99. Derryck Green, "Marriage Is Not a Right," National Center for Public Policy Research website (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  100. Jonathan Dohanich, "Marriage Is a Privilege, Not a Right," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette website, Dec. 27, 2013

  101. Center for Family and Human Rights, "European Court: Gay Marriage Is Not a Human Right,", Jul 25, 2014

  102. European Court of Human Rights, "Case of Schalk and Kopf v. Austria,", Nov. 22, 2010

  103. United Nations, ""The Universal Declaration of Human Rights," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  104. Amnesty International, "Love Is a Human Right," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  105. Nisha Chittal, "Judges Chip Away at Florida Gay Marriage Ban,", July 26, 2014

  106. The Week Staff, "How Marriage Has Changed over Centuries," the, June 1, 2012

  107. Evan Wolfson, "Protections Denied to Same-sex Couples and Their Kids," (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)

  108. B.A. Robinson, "Marriage Prohibition on the Basis of Race. Part 1: Conflict over Inter-Racial marriage in the U.S. Anti-Miscegenation Laws. The Supreme Court Ruling of 1967 in Loving v. Virginia,", May 27, 2014

  109. Courage International, "About Courage," (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)

  110. Rose McDermott, "Polygamy: More Common Than You Think,", Apr. 1, 2011

  111. Peter Strauss, "Due Process," Dec. 4, 2014)

  112. "14th Amendment [of the US Constitution],", July 9, 1868

  113. Richard G. Wight, et al., "Same-Sex Legal Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Findings from the California Health Interview Survey," American Journal of Public Health website, Feb. 2013

  114. Jessica Dickler, "The Gay Marriage Windfall,", May 10, 2012

  115. M.V. Lee Badgett and Jody L. Herman, "Patterns of Relationship Recognition by Same-Sex Couples in the United States,", Nov. 2011

  116. National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Unmarried Childbearing,", Feb. 13, 2014

  117. US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, April DeBoer, et al., v. Richard Snyder, et al.,, Nov. 6, 2014

  118. The White House, "Civil Rights," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  119. Pew Research Center, "Religious Groups' Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage,", Dec. 7, 2012

  120. "Leviticus 18:22," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  121. Human Rights Campaign, "Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues: Islam," (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)

  122. David S. Cohen, "Same-Sex Marriage Bans: A Form of Sex Discrimination,", Jan. 17, 2014

  123. Lornet Turnbull, "State to Same-Sex Domestic Partners: You're about to Be Married,", Feb. 16, 2014

  124. Michael Dresser and Carrie Wells, "With Same-Sex Marriage Now Available, State to End Benefits for Domestic Partners,", May 3, 2013

  125. Chuck Hagel, et al., "Memorandum for secretaries of the Military Departments under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness,", Aug. 13, 2013

  126. Joanne Sammer and Stephen Miller, "The Future of Domestic Partner Benefits," Society for Human Resource Management website, Oct. 21, 2013

  127. Anders Zanichkowsky, "Why I Oppose Marriage Equality, ", June 26, 2013

  128. Jon Stewart and Gene Robinson, "Exclusive - Gene Robinson Extended Interview Pt. 1,", Dec. 10, 2012

  129. Lee Jefferson, "What Does the Bible Actually Say about Gay Marriage?,", Nov. 4, 2012

  130. Stevie St. John, "What Does Judaism Say about LGBT People?,", Dec. 3, 2014

  131. Megan McArdle, "Can Gay Marriage Solve Our Adoption Problem?,", Mar. 29, 2013

  132. People for the American Way Foundation, "Marriage Equality Opponents Blur Distinction between Civil and Religious Marriage," (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)

  133. Mark Regnerus, "How Different Are the Adult Children of Parents Who Have Same-Sex Relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study," Social Science Research, 2012

  134. Legal Voice, "Questions and Answers: Washington’s Domestic Partnership Law,", Dec. 2012

  135. Maryland Department of Budget & Management, "Short Plan Year Summary of Changes,", 2013

  136. Raphael Schweber-Koren, "Dobson: Same-Sex Marriage Would Lead to 'Marriage between Daddies and Little Girls ... between a Man and his Donkey,' " Oct. 7, 2005

  137. Rick Santorum, "Americans Must Preserve Institution of Marriage,", July 9, 2003

  138. Greg Botelho and Bill Mears, "Texas Ban on Same-Sex Marriage Struck Down by Federal Judge,", Feb. 27, 2014

  139. Joel Connelly, "Gregoire: End Discrimination, Let Same-Sex Couples Marry,", Jan. 4, 2012

  140. General Convention of the Episcopal Church, "Resolution Number 2006-A095: Reaffirm Support of Gay and Lesbian Persons,", 2006

  141. Unitarian Universalist Association, "Support of the Right to Marry for Same-Sex Couples: 1996 Resolution of Immediate Witness,", Oct. 19, 2011

  142. United Church of Christ General Synod, "Equal Marriage Rights for All,", July 4, 2005

  143. Dana Ford, "Presbyterians Vote to Allow Same-Sex Marriage,", June 25, 2014

  144. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Unintended Pregnancy Prevention,", Feb. 12, 2013

  145. Philip Pullella, "Gay Marriage a Threat to Humanity's Future: Pope,", Jan. 9, 2012

  146. Peter Sprigg, "The Top Ten Harms of Same-Sex Marriage," Family Research Council website (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)

  147. Maria De Cristofaro and Tracy Wilkinson, "Gay Marriage Is Immoral, Vatican Says,", Aug. 3, 2003

  148. David Edwards, "‘Grow a Spine!’: Huckabee Explodes at GOP for Giving up as Gays Break 'Nature’s Law' of Marriage,", Oct. 13, 2014

  149. Right Wing Watch, "Barber: Every Gay Person Knows 'What They Are Doing Is Immoral, Unnatural, & Self-Destructive," (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)

  150. Rob Boston, "The Religious Right's Gay Agenda: How Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson and Other Religious Right Leaders Use Gay-Bashing to Fill Their Coffers and Rally Their Troops," Americans United for Separation of Church and State website, Oct. 1999

  151. Shannon Minter, "Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children,", Oct./Nov. 2001

  152. BBC News, "Gay Marriage around the World,", Apr. 23, 2013

  153. Josh Hicks, "Federal Benefits Won't Extend to Domestic Partners under DOMA Ruling,", July 8, 2013

  154. Internal Revenue Service, "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions for Registered Domestic Partners and Individuals in Civil Unions,", Aug. 19, 2014

  155. National Conference of State Legislatures, "Civil Unions and Domestic Partnership Statutes,", Nov. 18, 2014

  156. Lambda Legal, "8 Things Same-Sex Couples Need to Know about Taxes (Updated for 2015),", Mar. 18, 2015

  157. Yahoo News Video, "From Foreign Policy to Marijuana: Carly Fiorina Talks about the Issues," (accessed June 10, 2015)

  158. Elisabeth Bumiller, "Bush Says His Party Is Wrong to Oppose Gay Civil Unions,", Oct. 26, 2004

  159. SCOTUS Blog, "Obergefell v. Hodges," (accessed Jan. 6, 2016)

  160. US Supreme Court, Obergefell v. Hodges,, June 26, 2015

  161. Cheryl Wetzstein, "States Rebel against Supreme Court Gay Marriage Ruling,", July 6, 2015

  162. Michael Martinez, "Who Is Kim Davis, Kentucky Clerk Jailed over Same-Sex Marriage Licenses?,", Sep. 8, 2015

  163. CBS/AP, "More Alabama Counties Allow Same-Sex Marriage Amid 'Judicial Chaos,'", Feb. 10, 2015

  164. CBS/AP, "Ala. Judge Goes After Same-Sex Marriage after Son Indicted,", Jan. 6, 2016

  165. Camila Domonoske, "Alabama Chief Justice Orders Judges to Enforce Ban on Same Sex Marriage," nprorg, Jan. 6, 2015

  166. Justin McCarthy, "Two in Three Americans Support Same-Sex Marriage,", May 23, 2018

  167. Pew Research Center, "Majority of Public Favors Same-Sex Marriage, but Divisions Persist,", May 14, 2019


Jonathan H. Adler, "Is Judge Walker’s Opinion Really That Compelling?,", Aug. 6, 2010

Answers to Questions About Marriage Equality,, Dec. 8, 2009

Paul Axel-Lute, "Same-Sex Marriage: A Selective Bibliography of the Legal Literature,", Sep. 1, 2010

"Ballot Arguments," (accessed Sep. 15, 2010)

Ross Douthat, "The Marriage Ideal,", Aug. 8, 2010

Stephen J. Heaney, "A Marriage Tail,", Aug. 13, 2010

Frederick Hertz, Making It Legal, 2009

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James G. Pawelski, MS, et al., "The Effects of Marriage, Civil Union, and Domestic Partnership Laws on the Health and Well-being of Children," Pediatrics, July 2006

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William C. Thompson, Jr., "Love Counts: The Economic Benefits of Marriage Equality for New York" (127 KB),, June 2007

Suzanna Danuta Walters, All the Rage: The Story of Gay Visibility in America, 2001