Last updated on: 5/14/2019 | Author:

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

  1. Christian Broadcasting Network, “Americans Question Who Makes a Family,”, Sep. 15, 2010
  2. Nate Silver, “Divorce Rates Higher in States with Gay Marriage Bans,”, Jan. 12, 2010
  3. American Foundation for Equal Rights, “14 Supreme Court Cases: Marriage Is a Fundamental Right,”, July 19, 2012
  4. Kathryn Perry, “The Cost of Gay Marriage – In Dollars and Cents,” Christian Science Monitor, May 27, 2009
  5. American Psychological Association, “American Psychological Association Reiterates Support for Same-sex Marriage,”, Aug. 11, 2010
  6. Freedom to Marry, “Marriage 101,” (accessed Sep. 15, 2010)
  7. Tara Siegel Bernard and Ron Lieber, “The High Price of Being a Gay Couple,”, Oct. 2, 2009
  8. American Anthropological Association, “Statement on Marriage and the Family,”, Feb. 26, 2004
  9. Margaret Talbot, “Marriage as a Dynamic Institution,”, Jan. 12, 2010
  10. “Do We Really Want to Redefine Marriage,”, Aug. 11, 2010
  11. Glen Lavy, “Gay Marriage and the ‘Slippery Slope,'”, May 21, 2008
  12. Jerome Nathaniel, “5 U.S. Presidents Who Were Never Fathers,” Policy.Mic website, June 17, 2013
  13. Sigal Samuel, “Jewish Responses to the Supreme Court’s Same-Sex Marriage Rulings,”, June 27, 2013
  14. M.V. Lee Badgett, PhD, When Gay People Get Married, 2009
  15. William N. Eskridge, Jr., Equality Practice: Civil Unions and the Future of Gay Rights, 2001
  16. Paula Ettelbrick, “Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?,” OUT/LOOK National Gay and Lesbian Quarterly, Fall 1989
  17. Stanley Kurtz, “The End of Marriage in Scandinavia,” Weekly Standard, Feb. 2, 2004
  18. John F. Harvey, “Regarding ‘Gay Marriage,’ ”, July 7, 2009
  19. Dana Mack, “Now What for Marriage?,”, Aug. 6, 2010
  20. Andrew Sullivan, Same-Sex Marriage Pro and Con, 2004
  21. David Carter, Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution, 2005
  22. George Chauncey, Why Marriage?: The History Shaping Today’s Debate over Gay Equality, 2004
  23. Tricia Andryszewski, Same-Sex Marriage: Moral Wrong or Civil Right?, 2007
  24. Gregory M. Herek, PhD, “Facts About Homosexuality and Mental Health,” (accessed Sep. 16, 2010)
  25. “North Carolina Passes Same-sex Marriage Ban, CNN Projects,”, May 8, 2012
  26. Alan Cooperman, Jonathan Finer, and Fred Barbash, “Gay Couples Wed in Mass.,”Washington Post, May 17, 2004
  27. “House Rejects Same-Sex Marriage Ban,” Washington Post, Oct. 1, 2004
  28. Jennfer C. Pizer, “Lambda Legal Applauds Perry v. Schwarzenegger Ruling Striking Down Prop 8,”, Aug. 4, 2010
  29. “Same Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships,”, Apr. 2010
  30. Maura Dolan, “Federal Panel Puts Same-sex Marriage on Hold as Appeal of Prop. 8 Ruling Goes Forward,”, Aug. 17, 2010
  31. “ABA Supports Legalizing Same-sex Marriage,”, Aug. 11, 2010
  32. “American Psychological Association Reiterates Support for Same-sex Marriage,”, Aug. 11, 2010
  33. “Church Statement on Proposition 8 Ruling,”, Aug. 4, 2010
  34. Jeffrey Donovan, “Pope Condemns Gay Marriage, Warns on Biotechnology Before Trip to U.K.,”, Sep. 13, 2010
  35. Nate Silver, “Opinion on Same-Sex Marriage Appears to Shift at Accelerated Pace,”, Aug. 12, 2010
  36. “Americans Split Evenly on Gay Marriage,”, Aug. 11, 2010
  37. Amber G. Marcellino, et al., “Congressional Budget Office Cost Estimate H.R. 2517,”, Dec. 17, 2009
  38. J. Frank Vespa-Papaleo, et al., “The Legal, Medical, Economic & Social Consequences of New Jersey’s Civil Union Law,”, Dec. 10, 2008
  39. “Recognition of Same-Sex Couples Worldwide,”, July 19, 2010
  40. Sahil Kapur, “Breaking: Appeals Court Scraps Gay Marriage Bans In Wisconsin, Indiana,”, Sep. 4, 2014
  41. Vaughn Walker, JD, Opinion, Perry v. Schwarzenneger,, Aug. 4, 2010
  42. D’Vera Cohn, “Love and Marriage,”, Feb. 13, 2014
  43. Blake Ellis, “Gay Marriage Boosts NYC’s Economy by $259 Million in First Year,”, July 24, 2012
  44. Sabrina Tavernise, “Adoptions by Gay Couples Rise, Despite Barriers,”, June 13, 2011
  45. Nanette Gartrell, MD, and Henny Bos, PhD, “US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological Adjustment of 17-Year-Old Adolescents,” Pediatrics, July 7, 2010
  46. Rachel H. Farr, Stephen L. Forsell, and Charlotte J. Patterson, “Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?,” Applied Developmental Science, July 19, 2010
  47. Anjan Choudhury, JD, “Application for Leave to File Brief Amici Curiae in Support of the Parties Challenging the Marriage Exclusion, and Brief Amici Curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in Support of the Parties Challenging the Marriage Exclusion,”, Sep. 26, 2007
  48. Laura Langbein and Mark A. Yost, Jr., “Same-Sex Marriage and Negative Externalities,” Social Science Quarterly, June 2009
  49. Bruce Peterson, JD, Majority Opinion, Baker v. Nelson,, Oct. 15, 1971
  50. W. Bradford Wilcox and Elizabeth Marquardt, “The State of Our Unions: Marriage in America 2009,”, Dec. 2009
  51. Brady E. Hamilton, PhD, Joyce A. Martin, MPH, and Stephanie J. Ventura, MA, “Births: Preliminary Data for 2008,”  National Vital Statistics Reports, Apr. 6, 2010
  52. Bruce J. Ellis, “Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?,”, Child Development, May 2003
  53. Napp Nazworth, “Kids Need Both Mom and Dad, Says Gay Man Opposed to Gay Marriage,”, Jan. 28, 2013
  54. Joseph Card. Ratzinger, “Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions Between Homosexual Persons,”, June 3, 2003
  55. Steven Levinson, JD, Majority Opinion, Baehr v. Lewin,, May 5, 1993
  56. John Dooley,Baker v. Vermont,  Majority Opinion,, Dec. 20, 1999
  57. Jake Tapper, “President Obama Supports Legislation to Repeal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA),”, July 19, 2011
  58. David Nakamura, “Obama Backs Bill to Repeal Defense of Marriage Act,”, July 19, 2011
  59. “A Contentious Debate: Same-Sex Marriage in the U.S.,”, July 9, 2009
  60. US Supreme Court, Loving v. Virginia,, June 12, 1967
  61. “Remarks from NAACP Press Conference on Marriage Equality,”, May 21, 2012
  62. Matthew D. Staver, “Homosexual Behavior Should Not Be Accorded Special Protection,” National Law Journal Online, Oct. 2002
  63. “Denmark Approves Same-Sex Marriage and Church Weddings,” BBC website, June 7, 2012
  64. Jackie Calmes and Peter Baker, “Obama Says Same-Sex Marriage Should Be Legal,” New York Times, May 9, 2012
  65. Michael K. Lavers, “Uruguayan President Signs Marriage Bill into Law,” Washington Blade, May 7, 2013
  66. “Marriage Legislation Becomes Law,” Radio New Zealand website, Apr. 21, 2013
  67. “France Gay Marriage: Hollande Signs Bill into Law,” BBC website, May 18, 2013
  68. Ezra Klein, “Sorry, Justice Scalia: There’s No Evidence That Gay Parents Aren’t Great Parents,”, Mar. 27, 2013
  69. Shankar Vedantam, “Bans of Same-Sex Marriage Can Take a Psychological Toll,”, May 20, 2013
  70. Ryan T. Anderson, “Marriage: What It Is, Why It Matters, and the Consequences of Redefining It,”, Mar. 11, 2013
  71. Jillian Keenan, “Legalize Polygamy!,”, Apr. 15, 2013
  72. Justin McCarthy, “Same-Sex Marriage Support Reaches New High at 55%,”, May 21, 2014
  73. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Perry v. Brown,, Feb. 7, 2012
  74. David G. Savage, “Gay Marriage Ruling: Supreme Court Finds DOMA Unconstitutional,”, June 26, 2013
  75. US Supreme Court, United States v. Windsor,, June 26, 2013
  76. Bill Mears, “Supreme Court Dismisses California’s Proposition 8 Appeal,”, June 26, 2013
  77. US Supreme Court, Hollingsworth v. Perry,, June 26, 2013
  78. Chris Kirk, “What Countries Have Marriage Equality?,”, July 17, 2013
  79. “Where State Laws Stand,” (accessed July 17, 2013)
  80. Pew Research Center, “Gay Marriage around the World,”, Feb. 5, 2014
  81. Lawrence Hurley, “Supreme Court Dodges Gay Marriage, Allowing Weddings in Five States,”, Oct. 6, 2014
  82. Freedom to Marry, “States,”, Nov. 12, 2014
  83. Freedom to Marry, “The Freedom to Marry Internationally,”, Dec. 2014
  84. Against Equality, “Marriage,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  85. Illinois Family Institute, “The Effects of Same-sex Marriage on Education,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  86. Congressional Budget Office, “The Potential Budgetary Impact of Recognizing Same-Sex Marriages,”, June 21, 2004
  87. Niraj Chokshi, “Gay Marriages Could Generate Hundreds of Millions in First Year of Legalization for 11 states, Studies Find,”, Aug. 14, 2014
  88. US Supreme Court, Oral Arguments in Dennis Hollingsworth, et al., v. Kristen M. Perry, et al., Mar. 26, 2013
  89. Josh Barro, “What Is the Fiscal Impact of Gay Marriage?,”, Mar. 26, 2013
  90. Ed. Basil Jones, “The American Ruling Cases as Determined by the Courts: Including the Fundamental Cases of England and Canada; Also All Reviewing and Illustrating Cases of Material Value from the Latest Official Reports, Completely Annotated,”, 1917
  91. Ross Douthat, “Marriage, Procreation and Historical Amnesia,” Apr. 2, 2013
  92. Lindsey Bever, “Children of Same-Sex Couples Are Happier and Healthier than Peers, Research Shows,”, July 7, 2014
  93. Nolo, “Marriage Rights and Benefits,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  94. Lisa Arnold and Christina Campbell, “The High Price of Being Single in America,”, Jan. 14, 2013
  95. Evan Wolfson, “Protections Denied to Same-Sex Couples and Their Kids,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  96. Jonathan Vespa, Jamie M. Lewis, and Rose M. Kreider, “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2012,”, Aug. 2013
  97. National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Infertility,”, Feb. 13, 2014
  98. Meredith Clark, “Arizona Points to Procreation to Defend Gay Marriage Ban,”, July 25, 2014
  99. Derryck Green, “Marriage Is Not a Right,” National Center for Public Policy Research website (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  100. Jonathan Dohanich, “Marriage Is a Privilege, Not a Right,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette website, Dec. 27, 2013
  101. Center for Family and Human Rights, “European Court: Gay Marriage Is Not a Human Right,”, Jul 25, 2014
  102. European Court of Human Rights, “Case of Schalk and Kopf v. Austria,”, Nov. 22, 2010
  103. United Nations, “”The Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  104. Amnesty International, “Love Is a Human Right,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  105. Nisha Chittal, “Judges Chip Away at Florida Gay Marriage Ban,”, July 26, 2014
  106. The Week Staff, “How Marriage Has Changed over Centuries,” the, June 1, 2012
  107. Evan Wolfson, “Protections Denied to Same-sex Couples and Their Kids,” (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)
  108. B.A. Robinson, “Marriage Prohibition on the Basis of Race. Part 1: Conflict over Inter-Racial marriage in the U.S. Anti-Miscegenation Laws. The Supreme Court Ruling of 1967 in Loving v. Virginia,”, May 27, 2014
  109. Courage International, “About Courage,” (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)
  110. Rose McDermott, “Polygamy: More Common Than You Think,”, Apr. 1, 2011
  111. Peter Strauss, “Due Process,” Dec. 4, 2014)
  112. “14th Amendment [of the US Constitution],”, July 9, 1868
  113. Richard G. Wight, et al., “Same-Sex Legal Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Findings from the California Health Interview Survey,” American Journal of Public Health website, Feb. 2013
  114. Jessica Dickler, “The Gay Marriage Windfall,”, May 10, 2012
  115. M.V. Lee Badgett and Jody L. Herman, “Patterns of Relationship Recognition by Same-Sex Couples in the United States,”, Nov. 2011
  116. National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Unmarried Childbearing,”, Feb. 13, 2014
  117. US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, April DeBoer, et al., v. Richard Snyder, et al.,, Nov. 6, 2014
  118. The White House, “Civil Rights,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  119. Pew Research Center, “Religious Groups’ Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage,”, Dec. 7, 2012
  120. “Leviticus 18:22,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  121. Human Rights Campaign, “Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues: Islam,” (accessed Dec. 4, 2014)
  122. David S. Cohen, “Same-Sex Marriage Bans: A Form of Sex Discrimination,”, Jan. 17, 2014
  123. Lornet Turnbull, “State to Same-Sex Domestic Partners: You’re about to Be Married,”, Feb. 16, 2014
  124. Michael Dresser and Carrie Wells, “With Same-Sex Marriage Now Available, State to End Benefits for Domestic Partners,”, May 3, 2013
  125. Chuck Hagel, et al., “Memorandum for secretaries of the Military Departments under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness,”, Aug. 13, 2013
  126. Joanne Sammer and Stephen Miller, “The Future of Domestic Partner Benefits,” Society for Human Resource Management website, Oct. 21, 2013
  127. Anders Zanichkowsky, “Why I Oppose Marriage Equality, ”, June 26, 2013
  128. Jon Stewart and Gene Robinson, “Exclusive – Gene Robinson Extended Interview Pt. 1,”, Dec. 10, 2012
  129. Lee Jefferson, “What Does the Bible Actually Say about Gay Marriage?,”, Nov. 4, 2012
  130. Stevie St. John, “What Does Judaism Say about LGBT People?,”, Dec. 3, 2014
  131. Megan McArdle, “Can Gay Marriage Solve Our Adoption Problem?,”, Mar. 29, 2013
  132. People for the American Way Foundation, “Marriage Equality Opponents Blur Distinction between Civil and Religious Marriage,” (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)
  133. Mark Regnerus, “How Different Are the Adult Children of Parents Who Have Same-Sex Relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study,” Social Science Research, 2012
  134. Legal Voice, “Questions and Answers: Washington’s Domestic Partnership Law,”, Dec. 2012
  135. Maryland Department of Budget & Management, “Short Plan Year Summary of Changes,”, 2013
  136. Raphael Schweber-Koren, “Dobson: Same-Sex Marriage Would Lead to ‘Marriage between Daddies and Little Girls … between a Man and his Donkey,’ ” Oct. 7, 2005
  137. Rick Santorum, “Americans Must Preserve Institution of Marriage,”, July 9, 2003
  138. Greg Botelho and Bill Mears, “Texas Ban on Same-Sex Marriage Struck Down by Federal Judge,”, Feb. 27, 2014
  139. Joel Connelly, “Gregoire: End Discrimination, Let Same-Sex Couples Marry,”, Jan. 4, 2012
  140. General Convention of the Episcopal Church, “Resolution Number 2006-A095: Reaffirm Support of Gay and Lesbian Persons,”, 2006
  141. Unitarian Universalist Association, “Support of the Right to Marry for Same-Sex Couples: 1996 Resolution of Immediate Witness,”, Oct. 19, 2011
  142. United Church of Christ General Synod, “Equal Marriage Rights for All,”, July 4, 2005
  143. Dana Ford, “Presbyterians Vote to Allow Same-Sex Marriage,”, June 25, 2014
  144. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Unintended Pregnancy Prevention,”, Feb. 12, 2013
  145. Philip Pullella, “Gay Marriage a Threat to Humanity’s Future: Pope,”, Jan. 9, 2012
  146. Peter Sprigg, “The Top Ten Harms of Same-Sex Marriage,” Family Research Council website (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)
  147. Maria De Cristofaro and Tracy Wilkinson, “Gay Marriage Is Immoral, Vatican Says,”, Aug. 3, 2003
  148. David Edwards, “‘Grow a Spine!’: Huckabee Explodes at GOP for Giving up as Gays Break ‘Nature’s Law’ of Marriage,”, Oct. 13, 2014
  149. Right Wing Watch, “Barber: Every Gay Person Knows ‘What They Are Doing Is Immoral, Unnatural, & Self-Destructive,” (accessed Dec. 16, 2014)
  150. Rob Boston, “The Religious Right’s Gay Agenda: How Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson and Other Religious Right Leaders Use Gay-Bashing to Fill Their Coffers and Rally Their Troops,” Americans United for Separation of Church and State website, Oct. 1999
  151. Shannon Minter, “Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children,”, Oct./Nov. 2001
  152. BBC News, “Gay Marriage around the World,”, Apr. 23, 2013
  153. Josh Hicks, “Federal Benefits Won’t Extend to Domestic Partners under DOMA Ruling,”, July 8, 2013
  154. Internal Revenue Service, “Answers to Frequently Asked Questions for Registered Domestic Partners and Individuals in Civil Unions,”, Aug. 19, 2014
  155. National Conference of State Legislatures, “Civil Unions and Domestic Partnership Statutes,”, Nov. 18, 2014
  156. Lambda Legal, “8 Things Same-Sex Couples Need to Know about Taxes (Updated for 2015),”, Mar. 18, 2015
  157. Yahoo News Video, “From Foreign Policy to Marijuana: Carly Fiorina Talks about the Issues,” (accessed June 10, 2015)
  158. Elisabeth Bumiller, “Bush Says His Party Is Wrong to Oppose Gay Civil Unions,”, Oct. 26, 2004
  159. SCOTUS Blog, “Obergefell v. Hodges,” (accessed Jan. 6, 2016)
  160. US Supreme Court, Obergefell v. Hodges,, June 26, 2015
  161. Cheryl Wetzstein, “States Rebel against Supreme Court Gay Marriage Ruling,”, July 6, 2015
  162. Michael Martinez, “Who Is Kim Davis, Kentucky Clerk Jailed over Same-Sex Marriage Licenses?,”, Sep. 8, 2015
  163. CBS/AP, “More Alabama Counties Allow Same-Sex Marriage Amid ‘Judicial Chaos,'”, Feb. 10, 2015
  164. CBS/AP, “Ala. Judge Goes After Same-Sex Marriage after Son Indicted,”, Jan. 6, 2016
  165. Camila Domonoske, “Alabama Chief Justice Orders Judges to Enforce Ban on Same Sex Marriage,” nprorg, Jan. 6, 2015
  166. Justin McCarthy, “Two in Three Americans Support Same-Sex Marriage,”, May 23, 2018
  167. Pew Research Center, “Majority of Public Favors Same-Sex Marriage, but Divisions Persist,”, May 14, 2019


Jonathan H. Adler, “Is Judge Walker’s Opinion Really That Compelling?,”, Aug. 6, 2010

Answers to Questions About Marriage Equality,, Dec. 8, 2009

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